राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा २०१६ - Paper 2

Passage (Questions number 21 to 25) :
             In the history of aesthetics there also comes an age of emancipation when the recognition of beauty in things great and small becomes easy, and when we see it more in the unassuming harmony of common objects than in things startling in their singularity. So much so, that we have to go through the stages of reaction when in the representation of beauty we try to avoid everything that is obviously pleasing and that has been crowned by the sanction of convention. We are then tempted in defiance to exaggerate the commonness of commonplace things, thereby making them aggressively uncommon. To restore harmony

             we create the discords which are a feature of all reactions. We already see in the present age, the signs of this aesthetic reaction, which prove that man has at last come to know that it is only the narrowness of perception which sharply divides the field of his aesthetic consciousness into ugliness and beauty. When he has the power to see things detached from self-interest and from the insistent claims of the lust of the senses, and then alone can he have the true vision of the beauty that is everywhere. Then only can he see that what is unpleasant to us is not necessarily unbeautiful, but has its beauty in truth. .
            When we say that beauty is everywhere we do not mean that the word ugliness should be abolished from our language. To say so would be as absurd as to say that there is no such thing as untruth. Untruth there certainly is, not in the system of the universe, but in our power of comprehension, as its negative element. In the same manner there is ugliness in the distorted expression of beauty in our life and in our art which comes from our imperfect realization of Truth. To a certain extent we can set our life against the law of truth which is in us and which is in all, and likewise we can give rise to ugliness by going counter to the eternal law of harmony which is everywhere.

सविस्तर वाचा...


Select the most likely purpose of this passage.


Select an action that is not resulted from aesthetic consciousness gained due to person's narrow perceptions.


Select the behaviour that indicates concerned person's aesthetic sense has either attained or is in the process of attaining emancipation.

a. Person incorporates various aspects that are obviously pleasing to all in his or her expression of beauty.

b. Person doesn't get carried away by representations that are praised as beautiful due to sanction of convention.

c. Person makes every effort to enhance his or her power of comprehension for seeing things without distortion.


Select the reason(s) for calling the act of abolishing the word ugliness as absurd by the writer of this passage.

a. Things appear ugly to us as a result of imperfect understanding of reality.

b. The filthy places are definitely ugly for everyone.

c. Things represent ugliness to us till we fail to see unassuming harmony among


Select the statement(s) that confirm(s) the comment, "For writer of this passage, beauty depends on the state of person's mind and not on the outward features of things that appear to please him or her”.

a. We give rise to ugliness by going counter to the eternal law of harmony which
is everywhere.

b. Narrowness of perception sharply divides the field of person's aesthetic consciousness into ugliness and beauty.

c. Person's power to see things detached from self-interest and from the insistent claims of the lust of the senses, allows him or her to see beauty that is

Passage (Question number 26 to 30) :
            The Dodo is dead. The passenger pigeon has passed on. But Lonesome George, the iconic Galápagos tortoise whose death marked the end of his species, is in post-mortem luck.
           A scientific expedition has discovered some of his close blood relations alive and well. With careful breeding, biologists now hope to revive George's species.
            Originally there were at least eight species of Galápagos tortoise, scientists now believe. At least three species are now extinct, including tortoises on Pinta Island. The last one, George, was discovered wandering alone in 1972 and taken into loving custody. His death, in 2012 at more than 100 years old, was a powerful reminder of the havoc unleashed by humans on delicate ecosystems worldwide over the last two centuries.
             But, now the story of extinct Galápagos tortoise has taken a hopeful twist.
            More than a century ago, it turns out, sailors dumped saddlebacked tortoises they did not need into Banks Bay, near Wolf Volcano on Isabela Island. Luckily, tortoises can extend their necks above water and float on their backs. Many of them made it to shore, lumbered across the lava fields and interbred with Isabela's native domed tortoises.
              In 2008, scientists tagged and collected blood samples from more than 1,600 tortoises living on the flanks of the volcano. Back in the laboratory, there was a genetic eureka: Eighty-nine of the animals were part Floreana - whose full genetic Profile DNA had been obtained from museum samples.
             Some had genes indicating their parents were living purebred Floreana tortoises, hinting that the species may not be extinct.
           Seventeen tortoises were shown to have high levels of Pinta DNA. Tortoises can live for more than 150 years, so some of them may well be George's immediate next of kin.
                  Last month, scientists went back to find them. Their plan was to capture and separate tortoises with high levels of Pinta and Floreana DNA, and then breed animals that are genetically closest to the original species.
                In a few generations, it should be possible to obtain tortoises with 95 percent of their *lost" ancestral genes, the scientists said.

सविस्तर वाचा...


The scientific genetic project started because of the death of


As per the passage, which are the extinct animal species ? 

a. Dodo

b. Passenger pigeon 

c. Pinta Galapagos 

d. Floreana Galapagos


The native species of tortoise was different from migrated species in having


Tortoises perished because of 


George had high levels of genes of 

(Questions number 31 to 35) :
          Photochemistry concerns with the study of the effect of radiant energy on chemical reactions, and with the rates and mechanism by which reactions initiated by light proceed.
          Ordinary or thermal reactions are initiated by activation brought about through molecular collisions. It is characteristic of all such reactions that they can occur spontaneously when the reactions are accompanied by a free energy decrease. However, photochemical reactions need not always accompany with decrease in the free energy. For a photochemical reaction to occur, reacting molecules can absorb radiations of only certain wavelength and not all, in the uv-visible region. In nature, many photochemical reactions e.g. fading of coloured fabric in sunlight, photosynthesis, etc. take place. In fact, with absorption of a sufficiently large quantum of radiant energy a molecule may be ruptured. Such absorption of light by an atom or molecule leads to its excitation; and if the activation is sufficiently great, chemical reaction may result. It is in this manner that absorbed light can affect the rate of a chemical reaction and frequently bring about chemical changes under conditions where thermal activation alone would not be effective.

               The rate of thermal uncatalyzed reactions at any fixed concentration can be varied only by change of temperature. With photochemical reactions, however, the rate can be controlled also by varying the intensity of the light used for irradiation. In the latter reactions, the number of molecules activated depends on the intensity of the light, and hence the concentration of activated molecules will be proportional to the light intensity to which the reactant is exposed. With sufficiently intense light sources, it is thus possible to attain reaction rates at ordinary temperatures, which would not result thermally except at considerably elevated temperatures. Again, since photochemical activation does not depend to any degree on temperature, the rate of activation is usually temperature-independent. Any increase in the rate of a photochemical reaction with temperature is due primarily to thermal reactions, which follow the activation process.

सविस्तर वाचा...


A photochemical reaction takes place by absorption of


Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct? 

a. Thermal reactions are temperature dependent.

b. Rate of photochemical reactions can be controlled by any light used as radiation.

c. The number of activated molecules is proportional to the intensity of the light
used as radiation.


The energy of activation depends upon ___________ in photochemical reaction.


In nature, ____________ is an example of photochemical reaction.


Certain photochemical reaction involves ____________ of the free energy.

Passage (Questions number 36 to 40) :
         Secularism is not about good and bad people, but about an unflinching law that won't brook public demonstrations of intolerance. Secularism is just to make sure that ordinary people can lead ordinary lives without fearing what tomorrow might bring. When the law is on your side you don't need eyes in the back of your head.
             It is the law, not irreligiousness, or shutting up the church, that makes us secular. In fact, Henry VIII was hardly secular because he flouted the Pope, divorced and re-married. If the Vatican did not approve of his behaviour, it could go fly a kite. From this idea grew that secularism was about separating church from state.
         Religious persecution continued in Europe, not because the church said smell, go, hunt and kill, but because it was now the king who issued such diktats. The unquestionable authority of the priests was now replaced by that of the king.
            It is only with democracy that secularism truly appeared. This is not because we suddenly became good, and traded in our cruel hearts for loving ones. What made the real difference was that there were now legal penalties for communal and religious violence.
Secularism becomes a habit when the law works systematically, and without exception, against sectarian intolerance. It is this legal intolerance of intolerance that teaches us to be civil and not moral science in a classroom, nor sweet and inconstant political talk. Though it might still hurt to tolerate and make room for other communities, it would hurt a lot more to break the law.
              Across time, intolerance is spurred by social and economic insecurity. When jobs are scarce, when one's self-esteem has got a hiding, we start blaming other communities and see all kinds of evil in them. How is this best combated, with words or with deed ? Recall post-partition's hot and heady mood, and yet how Nehru succeeded in keeping religious passions from taking over our just born democracy. He succeeded, in large measure, because he promised jobs, dams and steel mills. He hardly talked of pure tolerance, or even secularism; he just did it.
             If secularism and pseudo-secularism are bandied about freely, and abusively, today it is because partisans on both sides are clueless on how to develop our economy. This is bipartisanship for you, Indian style!

सविस्तर वाचा...


The author argues that


Which of the following two statements is/are correct?

a. Henry VIII was against Christianity.

b. Secularism is related only to the ordinary people so that they can lead ordinary lives.


According to the author, there was religious prosecution in Europe

a. during the rule of the church. 

b. during the regime of Henry VIII.

c. after the establishment of the democratic system. 

d. during all the three regimes mentioned in options a, b and c.


According to the author, secularism means 


Which of the following two statements is/are correct? 

a. Since no party knows how to develop our economy both the parties are insecure.

b. Nehru instead of practising secularism during the post-partition hot and heady mood promoted economic development.

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