राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा २०१८ - Paper 2


पुढील उतारावाचून त्यावर आधारित 41 ते 45 प्रश्नांची उत्तरे द्या :
              ‘ज्ञान हे उपयुक्त असो वा नसो; त्याचे पावित्र्य स्वत:सिद्ध आहे. जिज्ञासापूर्तीचा निरागस आनंद, मानवाच्या अंत:शक्तीचा स्वतंत्र विलास व संपूर्ण विकास हेच ज्ञानाचे खरे प्रयोजन आहे' असा पक्ष हिरीरीने मांडला जातो. पण ज्ञानाचे चिरंतन, पावित्र्य व त्याची देशकालसापेक्ष उपयुक्तता यांमध्ये मुळातच विरोध आहे असे मानण्याचे कारण नाही. मानवी बुद्धीला आपल्या सामर्थ्याचा प्रत्यय आणून देणारे सत्यज्ञानाचे नवे उन्मेष नि:संशय आनंददायक असतात. त्या वेळी विद्यावंताची मन:स्थिती कळो न ये सुखदुःख । तान हरपली भूक अशी होत असेल. त्याची सामाजिक अस्मिता, किंबहुना बाह्यसृष्टी व मनुष्यत्त्व यांतील द्वैत ही ह्या अनुभवात क्षणभर विरून जात असेल. स्वान्त:सुखाच्या हाा क्षणावरील त्याचा नैसर्गिक हक्क कोणीच हिरावून घेऊ शकत नाही. मात्र ज्ञानसमाधीचा हा फक्त क्षणच असतो, तो ज्ञानोपासकाच्या जीवनाचा स्थायी भाव होऊ शकत नाही. विद्यानंद हा आत्मनिष्ठ व अलौकिक आहे हे मान्य केले, तरी विद्याभिवृद्धीचा सामाजिक संदर्भ, त्यासाठी खर्ची पडलेले सामूहिक श्रम व संपत्ती यांचा विचार लौकिक दृष्टीनेच करावा लागेल. ज्ञानाची निर्मिती, विकास आणि प्रसार ही कार्ये सातत्याने चालू राहायची असतील, तर विद्यावंतांना आपली सामाजिक जबाबदारी टाळता येणार नाही. मात्र त्यासाठी त्यांनी आपले ज्ञानैकनिष्ठेचे ब्रीद सोडण्याची. किंवा विचारस्वातंत्र्याला पारखे होण्याची मुळीच गरज नाही. विज्ञानाची मूळ प्रेरणा जरी मानवाच्या अंतिम हिताची असली, तरी प्रत्येक शास्त्रीय शोध वा सिद्धान्त तात्कालिक दृष्ट्या उपयुक्त ठरलाच पाहिजे असे कोणीही म्हणणार नाही. कोणतीही नवी उपपत्ती जेव्हा मांडली जाते तेव्हा एकंदर सामाजिक जीवनावर तिचे दूरगामी परिणाम काय होतील याची खात्रीशीर निर्णय करणे कोणालाच शक्य नसते. कोणत्याही सिद्धान्ताच्या उपयोजनेसाठी विचाराच्या व व्यवहाराच्या प्रांतांत पुरेसे अनुकूल वातावरण नसेल तर तो काही काळ अगदी निरुपयोगी किंवा विघातकही ठरण्याचा संभव असतो. म्हणून एखाददुस-या सिद्धान्ताच्या उपयुक्तते पेक्षा ज्ञानोपासकांच्या भूमिकेचा प्रश्न अधिक महत्त्वाचा आहे.
               नैसर्गिक शास्त्रे व सामाजिक शास्त्रे यांत दुसराही एक मूलभूत फरक आहे. नैसर्गिक शास्त्रे बाह्य सृष्टीचा शोध घेतात. मानवाचे जीवन समृद्ध व सुखावह करणे हेच त्यांचे मूळ प्रयोजन होय, शास्त्रीय शोधांचा वापर मानवाच्या सुखासाठी न होता संहारासाठी होऊ लागला म्हणजे ज्ञाननिष्ठ की मानवनिष्ठ असा प्रश्न शास्त्रज्ञां पुढे उभा राहतो. सामाजिक शास्त्रे तर व्यक्ती, जाती, वर्ग, प्रदेश, राष्ट्रे व मानवसमाज यांच्या प्रवृत्तींचा व परस्परसंबंधांचा विचार करतात. हा प्रवृत्ती, हे संबंध, कधी परस्परपूरक तर कधी परस्परविरोधी असतात. एकाला जे लाभदायक ते दुस-याला हानिकारक ठरण्याचा संभव असतो. शिवाय जाती, वर्ग, प्रांत यांसारखा कोणताही घटक पूर्णपणे एकजिनसी नसतो. त्यात एकमेकांना छेद देणारी दद्वे असतात. अशा वेळी समाजजीवनाबद्दल काही निष्कर्ष काढावयाचे तर सामाजिक कलहात औपपत्तिक पातळीवर का होईना; पण निश्चित बाजू घ्यावी लागते.

सविस्तर वाचा...

41. 

ज्ञानोपासकांची सुखदुःखाची व तहानभुकेची जाणीव का हरपू जात असते ?

अ. बाह्यसृष्टी व मनुष्यत्त्व यातील अद्वैत संपून जात नाही.

ब. सत्यज्ञानाने जिज्ञानासापूर्तीचा आनंद व अंतःशक्तीचा विकास झाल्यामुळे 

क. ज्ञान पवित्र व देशकाळ उपयुक्त नसल्याच्या अजाणीवेमुळे 

ड. आपल्या सामाजिक जवाबदारीचे भान असल्यामुळे

42. 

सत्यज्ञानावर आधारलेल्या सिद्धांताच्या उपयोजनासाठी कोणती परिस्थिती आवश्यक असते ?

अ. काळावर होणारे दुरगामी परिणाम

ब. वैचारिक व व्यावहारिक क्षेत्रातील अनुकुल वातावरण

क. काळाची समुचितता

ड. ज्ञानोपासकांची भूमिका

43. 

विज्ञानाचे प्रमुख उद्दिष्ट कोणते ?

अ. मानवाचे जीवन समृद्ध व सुखावह करणे.

ब. व्यक्ती व मानवसमाज यांच्यातील परस्पर संबंधांचा विचार करणे.

क. शोधांचा वापर सुखापेक्षा संहारासाठी करणे

ड. सृष्टीतील सत्यांचा शोध घेणे

44. 

ज्ञानोपासकांना कोणते लौकिक मान ठेवावे लागते ?

अ. ज्ञाननिर्मिती व प्रसार ही आपली सामाजिक जवाबदारी आहे

ब. ज्ञानसाधना हाच आपल्या जीवनाचा स्थायीभाव आहे.

क, ज्ञानवृद्धीचा सामाजिक संदर्भ कोणता आहे.

ड. ज्ञानवृद्धीसाठी उपयुक्त ठरलेले समूहाचे श्रम व संपत्ती यांचे मूल्य कोणते आहे. 

45. 

ज्ञानाची पवित्रता आणि देशकाल सापेक्ष उपयुक्तता यामध्ये कोणते नाते असणे आवश्यक आहे ?

अ. ज्ञानवंत व समूह यांच्या आनंदमयते चे

ब. समन्वयाचे

क. सामाजिक अस्मितेचे

ड. मानव समूहाच्या अंतिम हिताचे 

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 46 to 50:
            In the Soumya case the Supreme Court acquitted the accused for murder but convicted him to life imprisonment for rape, which Justice Katju criticised in his writing. The subsequent incidents were wholly unwarranted. The court invited the former judge to defend his statements in person, then chose to take umbrage at his writing, issued a contempt notice against him, and then asked security staff to escort him outside the premises. Why did the court have to go through this theatrical public confrontation, when it could have issued a contempt notice on the basis of the blog post alone?
                The second aspect is even more troubling : the relevance of contempt law in a free society where criticism of the judiciary is inevitable. Judges have vast powers and people will not remain silent about the exercise of such powers. Just as decisions of other branches of government attract criticism, judicial decisions would also invite the same.
                  The Supreme Court has held that for the judiciary to function effectively, the dignity and authority of the courts must be respected and protected at all costs. But the need to respect the "authority and dignity of the court" is borrowed from a bygone era; it has no basis in a democratic system. The law of contempt should be employed only to enable the court to function, not to prevent criticism. In many countries, contempt jurisdiction is regarded as archaic and exercised sparingly. In the US, courts no longer use contempt to silence comments on judges or legal matters. The First Amendment to the US Constitution forbids imposition of contempt sanctions on a newspaper.
                The English position is best demonstrated by the Spycatcher's case in the late 1980s. After the House of Lords delivered the Spycatcher judgement, the Daily Mirror published an upside down photograph of the Law Lords captioned, "You Old Fools". But no contempt action was initiated against the newspaper.

सविस्तर वाचा...

46. 

The writer feels that criticism of judiciary is inevitable because 

a. People live in a free society 

b. People will not remain silent 

c. Other branches of government also attract criticism

d. Authority of courts is limited

47. 

Umbrage means

a. Shady

b. Appreciate

c. Resent

d. Offended

48. 

Upside-down' means

49. 

Which analogy was used for the judges in the Spycatcher's case ?

50. 

The Supreme Court invited Justice Katju to defend his statements; but then, what did the court do?

a. Took offense and asked him to go away

b. Insulted him by asking the security to remove him

c. Exhibited public confrontation

d. Jailed him 

51. 

Study the following observations noted by the author with respect to the "Make in India” initiative :

India's labour laws and labour quality simply do not meet the needs of high-quality industrial production. For example, a factory or enterprise with more than 100 workers must get permission, rarely given, to retrench workers. This encourages companies to think small, not thinking big. In addition, our skilled and unskilled labour does not have the capabilities needed in modern production. Labour is poorly educated and does not have discipline for the factory floor. Not surprisingly, worker productivity is the lowest in India amongst emerging markets and major South-east Asian countries. Select the appropriate interpretations with respect to the above information.

a. Labour laws and labour quality are the two factors posing hurdles in the way of "Make in India" initiative becoming a success.

b. Worker productivity in India is lowest as they are poorly educated and lack discipline required for the factory floor.

c. Worker productivity in India is lowest as companies think small and employ unskilled labour who are ready to work for low payment.

d. There is no provision for education that assists persons to acquire capabilities needed for modern production.

Answer Options:

52. 

Study the following statements :

If a whimsical dictator presses the missile button, the Third World War thus ensuing will end quickly with the possible end of civilization. It is only the hegemony of people like him and the misuse of nuclear power which will trigger this war.

Select the statement from the following options that is the most appropriate inference related to the above statements :

53. 

Examine the following statements : 

a. All concrete houses in this village are painted white.

b. Some of the houses have spacious porches.

c. Concrete houses that are built after liberalization have spacious porches.

d. All houses are not concrete houses.

Select the most valid conclusion based on the above statements from the following options :

54. 

Study the three statements and the conclusions given below. Select logically the valid option of conclusions with respect to the statements.
Statements :

I. None but the affluent can afford AC vehicles.

II. Some of those who travel by AC vehicles are protected from polluted air.

III. Some of those who travel by AC vehicles don't have health problems.

Conclusions : 

a. Those who travel by non-AC vehicles suffer from air pollution.

b. All the affluent do not travel by AC vehicles.

c. All the affluent do not have health problems.

d. All those who travel by AC vehicles are affluent people.

Answer Options :

55. 

Three criminals were arrested with some goods. During interrogation only one was telling the truth while each one of the other two told the truth and lied alternatively. They said

Ani : Janu broke open the doors. Manu collected the valuables.

Manu: Ani broke open the doors. I collected the valuables.
Janu: I carried the bags out of the shop. Manu broke open the doors.
Who collected the valuables ?

56. 

Study the statements and the conclusions given below. Select logically the valid option of conclusions with respect to the statements.
Staterments:

The Government run company had asked its employees to declare their income and assets, but it has been strongly resisted by the employees union and none of the employee has declared his/her income.
Conclusions :

I. The employees of this company do not seem to have any additional income besides their salary

II. The employees union wants all senior officers to declare their income first.

Answer Options :

57. 

Pia, Dia and Nia made the following statements when questioned about the winner of the race :

Pia : Either Setu or Lalu won the race.

Dia : Setu won the race.

Nia : Neither Setu nor Lalu won the race.

If only one of the persons is always a liar, then who won the race?

58. 

Lucy has 10 less than twice the sum of Zeenat and Jaya's coconuts. Jaya has twice as many coconuts as Zeenat. If Lucy were to give 15 coconuts to Zeenat and 5 coconuts to Jaya, Zeenat and Jaya would each have half the number of coconuts Lucy had originally. Select the option which shows how many coconuts Zeenat had originally.

59. 

Two bus tickets from city A to city B and three bus tickets from city A to city C cost a total of ₹ 77. But three tickets from city A to city B and two tickets from city A to city cost a total of ₹  73. What are the fares of cities B and C from city A respectively ?

60. 

There are four metal rods of lengths 102 cm, 136 cm, 153 cm and 289 cm each. They are all cut into parts having equal maximum length. Select the option showing the total number of parts of all the rods.

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