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राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा २०१७ - Paper 2

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Read the following passage and answer the questions from 1 to 5:
Immanuel Kant wrote a treatise called "What is Enlightenment ?” in 1784. He explained that 'Enlightenment is man's release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man's inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in the lack of reason but in the lack of courage to use it without direction from another. Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a portion of mankind remains under lifelong tutelage, and why it is so easy for others to set themselves up as their guardians. It is so easy not to be of age. That the step to competence is held to be very dangerous by the far greater portion of mankind is seen to by those guardians who have so kindly assumed superintendence over them. After the guardians have transformed their domestic cattle into dumb followers, and have made sure that these placid creatures will not dare take a single step without the harness of the cart to which they are tethered, the guardians then show them the danger which threatens if they try to go alone. Actually, however, this danger is not so great, for by falling a few times they would finally learn to walk alone. But an example of this failure makes them timid and ordinarily frightens them away from all further trials. "Have courage to use your own reason!" - that is the motto of enlightenment.'
Enlightenment thought culminated historically in the political upheaval of the French Revolution. The traditional hierarchical political and social order – the French monarchy, the privileges of the French nobility, the political power and authority of the Catholic Church — were violently destroyed and replaced by a political and social order informed by the Enlightenment ideals of freedom and equality for all, founded, upon principles of human reason. It gave rise to a basic model of government founded upon the consent of the governed. This also taught the society to expect that certain basic individual human rights and religious diversity need to be respected and realized by any legitimate political system.
 

Q. 1
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Q. 2

Why does the majority of mankind remain under lifelong tutelage ?

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Q. 3

Which of the following did not form the ideological basis of the new French Order?

Correct Answer is : 1
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Q. 4

Enlightenment resulted in the model of government that was founded on

Correct Answer is : 1
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Q. 5

What did the society learn to expect as a result of the Enlightenment ?

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Direction:

Read the following passage and answer the questions from 6 to 10:
Let us further consider the formation of concepts. Every word instantly becomes a concept precisely insofar as it is not supposed to serve as a reminder of the unique and entirely individual original experience to which it owes its origin; but rather, a word becomes a concept insofar as it simultaneously has to fit countless more or less similar cases – which means, purely and simply, cases which are never equal and thus altogether unequal. Every concept arises from the equation of unequal things. Just as it is certain that one leaf is never totally the same as another, so it is certain that the concept 'leaf is formed by arbitrarily discarding these individual differences and by forgetting the distinguishing aspects. This awakens the idea that, in addition to the leaves, there exists in nature the 'leaf : the original model according to which all the leaves were perhaps woven, sketched, measured, coloured, curled, and painted - but by incompetent hands, so that no specimen has turned out to be a correct, trustworthy, and faithful likeness of the original model. We call a person 'honest, and then we ask why has he behaved so honestly today ? Our usual answer is, 'on account of his honesty'. Honesty ! This in turn means that the leaf is the cause of the leaves. We know nothing whatsoever about an essential quality called honesty'; but we do know of countless individualized and consequently unequal actions which we equate by omitting the aspects in which they are unequal and which we now designate as 'honest actions. Finally, we formulate from them a qualitas occulta which has the name 'honesty. We obtain the concept, as we do the form, by overlooking what is individual and actual; whereas nature is acquainted with no forms and no concepts, and likewise with no species, but only with an X which remains inaccessible and undefinable for us. For even our contrast between individual and species is something anthropomorphic and does not originate in the essence of things, although we should not presume to claim that this contrast does not correspond to the essence of things : that would, of course, be a dogmatic assertion and, as such, would be just as indemonstrable as its opposite

Q. 6

When does a word become a concept?

a. When it is not supposed to serve as a reminder of the unique

b. On account of its honesty

c. When it fits the cases which are never equal

d. By overlooking the universals 

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Q. 7

How is the concept of leaf formed ?

a. Arbitrarily discarding the individual differences

b. Forgetting the distinguishing aspects

c. By nature

d. By imitating the original model

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Q. 8

What does the nature know, if not the concepts ?

a. The individual and actual

b. Essence of things

c. Equation of unequal things

d. It is inaccessible and undefinable 

Correct Answer is : 3
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Q. 9

 What actions does a leaf perform if it wants to get equated with the concept of leaf ?

a. To become one with individual differences

b. To discard the distinguishing aspects

c.To forget the distinguishing aspects

d. The equation of unequal things 

Correct Answer is : 2
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Q. 10

Which experience should count as a parameter of formulating a concept?

a. The original experience

b. The instant experience

c. The equating principle

d. None of the above

Correct Answer is : 2
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